15 Apr What Agreement Was Signed To Formally Ended Ww1
Germans of all political nuances condemned the treaty – in particular the provision that made Germany responsible for the beginning of the war – as an insult to the honour of the nation. They called the treaty a “diktat” because its terms were submitted to Germany on a take-it-it-or-leave-it basis. Philipp Scheidemann, Germany`s first democratically elected head of government, resigned instead of signing the treaty. In an impassioned speech to the National Assembly on 12 May 1919, he described the treaty as a “murderous plan” and exclaimed that the treaties signed with Turkey led to the dissolution of the once-powerful Ottoman Empire and determined most of the borders of present-day Turkey. Delegates from the Commonwealth and the British government had mixed ideas about the treaty, with some considering French politics to be greedy and vindictive.  Lloyd George and his private secretary, Philip Kerr, believed in the treaty, even though they believed that the French would keep Europe in constant turmoil by trying to impose the treaty.  Delegate Harold Nicolson wrote, “Are we doing a good peace?” while General Jan Smuts (a member of the South African delegation) wrote to Lloyd-George before signing that the treaty was unstable and declared: “Are we in our senses sober or are we suffering from a shell shock? What happened to Wilson`s 14 points? He wanted the Germans not to sign at bayonet.   Smuts issued a statement condemning the treaty and regretting that the promises of a “new international order and a fairer and better world are not enshrined in this treaty.” Lord Robert Cecil said that many members of the Department of Foreign Affairs were disappointed with the treaty.  The treaty was widely approved by public opinion. Bernadotte Schmitt wrote that “the average Englishman … thought that Germany had only got what it deserved” as a result of the treaty.  However, public opinion changed when German complaints increased.
 On 28 June 1914, the heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke François Ferdinand of Austria, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist.  This resulted in a rapid escalation of the July crisis, which led Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, followed by the entry of most European powers into World War I.  Two alliances opposed each other, the central powers (led by Germany) and the Triple Agreement (led by Great Britain, France and Russia). Other countries that fought across Europe, as well as the Middle East, Africa and Asia, have raged. In 1917, two revolutions took place in the Russian Empire. The new Bolshevik government of Vladimir Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, which was very favourable to Germany. When Germany felt victory before the American armies were ready, it relocated its troops to the Western Front and tried to subdue the Allies. She failed. Instead, the Allies won decisively on the battlefield, and in November 1918 they imposed a capitulation-like ceasefire.  The Japanese felt unfairly treated by the Allies, especially the United States, France and Great Britain, in the treaty, and they obtained what they did not consider sufficient in exchange for their efforts against the German Empire during the war.